You might think that good-looking men have every advantage in life.
你可能會認為長相英俊帥氣的男人在生活中有著天生的優勢。

But a new study suggests being handsome may not always work in a man's favour – at least when it comes to his career.
但一項新的研究表明,美貌并不總是放之四海而皆準的標桿,至少在找工作時,美貌卻并不一定能幫得上忙。

The research claims that attractive men are less likely to be given a job in a competitive workplace because they intimidate bosses.
長相英俊的男性在競爭激烈的職場中成功面試得到一份工作的可能性不是很大,因為他們對老板而言是另一種威脅。

'It's not always an advantage to be pretty,' says Marko Pitesa, an assistant professor at the University of Maryland. 'It can backfire if you are perceived as a threat.'
“美貌并不總占優勢,如果老板認為你對他是另一種威脅的話,可能會起到適得其反的作用,”馬里蘭大學的助理教授說。

Interestingly, in Pitesa's study, it was male attractiveness in particular, rather than female beauty, that made the most difference.
有意思的是,他的這項研究針對的不是女性美,而是重點對英俊帥氣的男性長相專門做了研究。

If the interviewer expected to work with the candidate as part of a team, then he preferred good-looking men.
如果面試官期望面試的人為工作團隊貢獻一份力量的話,那么,他比較青睞俊男帥哥們。

However, if the interviewer saw the candidate as a potential competitor, the interviewer discriminated in favour of unattractive men.
不過,如果面試官把面試的人看作是一個潛在的競爭對手的話,面試官偏袒長相不出眾的人。

In the first experiment, 241 adults were asked to evaluate fictional job candidates based on fake qualifications and experience, in an online setting.
在第一個實驗中,做了一些假的資歷和經驗簡歷,要求對241名成人假求職者在網上進行評估和判斷。

Men evaluated men and women evaluated women. Interviewers were primed to either think of the candidate as a future co-operator or competitor, and they were given a computer-generated headshot that was either attractive or unattractive.
男性評男性,女性評女性。面試官把有些面試人看作是未來的合作人,把有些面試人看作是競爭對手,他們用電腦生成頭像,把頭像分為英俊帥氣和沒有吸引力兩類。

'Kind of attractive and average, maybe slightly below average,' Pitesa clarifies - no supermodels.
把長相分為長相帥氣、長相一般、長相丑這三類,這些人的長相中沒有超模長相的人。

A second experiment involved 92 people in a lab. They were asked to evaluate future competitors or partners in a quiz game, based on credentials that included sample quiz answers, and they saw similar headshots.
在實驗室對92人做了第二個實驗:在問答游戲中,讓他們根據個人簡歷、測驗答案、個人頭像,來評估哪些人屬于未來的競爭對手類哪些人屬于合作伙伴類。

The patterns of discrimination based on perceived self-interest was the same.
我們都是從自我感知這個角度而產生歧視。

Another test opened up to include men interviewing women and women interviewing men.
還做了另外一項測試:男性面試女性,女性面試男性。

There was still a preference to cooperate with the attractive man and compete against the unattractive man.
和長相沒有吸引力的人相比,我們更愿意和長相好看的人合作。

A final experiment used photographs of actual European business school students, vetted for attractiveness, and found the same pattern.
使用歐洲商學院學生的照片做了最后一個實驗,都在同一個模式下從長相方面加以判斷。

The results suggest that interviewers were not blinded by beauty, and instead calculated which candidate would further their own career.
結果表明,面試官并沒有被美貌迷惑雙眼,而是衡量哪位面試人會在自己的職業生涯中有進一步的發展。

'The dominant theoretical perspective in the social sciences for several decades has been that biases and discrimination are caused by irrational prejudice,' Pitesa says.
社會科學的主導理論視角幾十年來一直都因非理性的主觀偏見看法而存在偏見和歧視?!?/div>

'The way we explain it here, pretty men just seem more competent, so it is actually subjectively rational to discriminate for or against them.'
“我們在這里要解釋的是帥氣英俊的男人看起來能力更強,這樣的看法實際上是對歧視或攻擊帥男們的主觀理性的體現?!?/div>

On a deeper level, she adds, the behaviour remains irrational, since there's no evidence that a real link exists between looks and competence.
在更深層面的意義上,這種主觀行為是屬于非理性的,因為沒有證據證明外表和能力之間真的有聯系關系。